5 Reasons You Would Need Tooth Extraction
A tooth abscess is a buildup of bacteria in the center of a tooth that causes infection. An abscess may form on behalf of tooth decay, or when a tooth is broken, chipped, or injured. The main symptom of a tooth abscess is a severe toothache, though other symptoms may include bad breath, fever, pain when chewing, sensitivity to hot or cold food and drinks, and swollen lymph nodes in the jaw or neck. A tooth with an abscess may be pulled to reduce the risk of infection and other complications.
2. Overcrowded Teeth
A tooth may be extracted if it causes problems with overcrowding. Overcrowded teeth can be difficult to clean, which increases the risk of tooth decay and gum disease. Extracting one or more problematic teeth can create more room in the mouth for teeth to spread out, and also makes room for braces.
3. Gum Disease
Gum disease, also known as periodontitis, is the inflammation and infection of the ligaments and bones that support teeth. This can lead to loosened teeth along with plaque and tartar buildup that contribute to tooth decay and abscesses. Common symptoms of gum disease include bad breath, bright red gums, bleeding, and swollen gums, gaps between teeth, and shifting teeth. Teeth may be extracted if they are close to falling out or have been damaged by gum disease.
4. Tooth Injury
Tooth extraction may be performed as an emergency dental procedure if a tooth has been injured or subject to trauma. For example, a tooth may be extracted if it was fractured during a fistfight or while playing contact sports like hockey or football. Tooth injuries may lead to complications like infection if not treated promptly.
5. Problematic Impacted Tooth
An impacted tooth is a tooth that has not broken through the gums due to factors such as overcrowding of teeth, a small jaw, or because the tooth has become tilted or displaced under the gums. This is highly common with wisdom teeth, which emerge during a person’s late teens and early 20s after all other teeth have grown in. Impacted teeth are often painless and do not cause problems, but when they do, they may cause symptoms including headaches, gum or jaw pain, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, and bad breath. Impacted teeth that become problematic are usually extracted.
Understanding Tooth Extraction
Tooth extraction is a procedure in which a dentist, oral surgeon, or periodontist removes a tooth from the gum socket. This procedure may be done for several reasons, such as to reduce the risk for infection or prevent the overcrowding of teeth in the mouth. Tooth extraction is normally performed as an outpatient procedure at the dentist’s office or the hospital.
Risks of Tooth Extraction
Dry socket is a common complication of tooth extraction but can be prevented by following your dentist’s instructions for mouth care following the procedure. A tooth that is pulled will leave a hole in the bone called a socket. Following a tooth extraction, a blood clot will form in the socket to protect the bone and nerves. Dry socket occurs when the clot is removed or fails to form, which exposes the bone and nerves to the air to cause pain and sensitivity. Risk factors for dry socket include poor oral health, tobacco use, use of birth control pills, drinking from a straw, and rinsing and spitting following extraction.
Other risks that may occur with tooth extraction include infection, nerve damage, bruising, swelling, pain or discomfort, slow healing, fractures caused by dental tools, damage to other teeth and restorations, and a reaction to medicines used during the procedure.
What to Expect with Tooth Extraction
Before a tooth extraction, your dentist will ask about your medical history to determine whether you have any medical conditions that may increase your risk for infection. Heart disease, liver disease, weakened immunity, and recent surgery are some factors that may lead to infection following tooth extraction.
Your dentist will administer a local anesthetic or general anesthesia to prevent you from feeling pain during the procedure. The use of a local anesthetic is more common with tooth extraction, though general sedation may be used for longer, more complex procedures that involve the removal of several teeth or other dental treatments.
Your dentist will use a tool called an elevator to loosen the affected tooth, then use forceps to remove it. If your dentist is unable to extract the tooth using forceps, the affected tooth may be sectioned or broken into several pieces to allow for easier removal.
After the tooth has been extracted, your dentist will clean the gum socket, smooth out any remaining bone, and close the gum using sutures. You may be instructed to bite down on a piece of gauze for several hours to stop any bleeding and allow a blood clot to form.
You may experience numbness in your lips and cheeks for a few hours following tooth extraction. Your dentist may give you an ice pack to reduce swelling, along with over-the-counter pain relievers or a prescription for painkillers that can help relieve discomfort. Your dentist will also advise you to eat soft foods, avoid the use of a straw, and care for your mouth to promote healing and prevent complications. Healing from a tooth extraction takes an average of between 1 and 2 weeks.
Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Tooth Extraction
- How long does tooth extraction take?
- What type of anesthesia will I receive?
- Will I feel any pain during the procedure?
- Which activities should I avoid after tooth extraction?
- What can I do to prepare for my appointment?
- Which foods and beverages should I avoid after tooth extraction?
- How often should I brush my teeth?
- How long will it take the socket to heal?
- How long will I experience pain and discomfort following my procedure?
- What are the risks and complications of tooth extraction?
- How soon can I go back to work after tooth extraction?
- How should I care for my teeth and socket after the extraction?
- When should I come back for a checkup or follow-up?
Tooth Extraction May Also be Known as:
- Tooth removal
- Tooth pulling
- Dental extraction
- Tooth surgery
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- Medline Plus. Tooth abscess. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001060.htm
- Medline Plus. Tooth extraction. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm
- UT Health San Antonio Dentistry. Extraction. https://www.uthscsa.edu/patient-care/dental/services/extraction-abscess-tooth-decay
- Medline Plus. Periodontitis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001059.htm
- Medline Plus. Impacted tooth. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001057.htm
- Medline Plus. Dry socket. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000780.htm